Selasa, 25 Oktober 2011

Contoh Skripsi Bahasa Inggris (CHAPTER I)


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of background, research questions, objective of the research, significance of the research, and scope of the research.
A.    Background
Since many centuries, literature as the language art has become the media of the people to express their mind, either in imaginative literature or in unimaginative literature. This shows us that literary work has strong correlation with the reflection of people’s life or social life, remembering that they who utilize literature as the way to expressing is the part of the society. As the opinion of Wellek and Warren in their book “Theory of Literature”:
“Literature is an expression of society… It is common place, trite and vague if it means only that literature depicts some aspects of social reality. A writer inevitably expresses his experience and total conception of life, but it would be manifestly untrue to say that he expresses the whole life or even life of given time completely and exhaustively.” (1973: 95)
Literary work depicts social reality. This is because, human being and literature are intertwined each other. They have interrelationship where literary work can be the representation of social reality and the literary work itself can influence the society and is published to the society. We can conclude that literary work is from and for the society.
Novel as one of literary genres is an example of literary work which describes social reality. One type of novel that reflects social reality factually and is very useful for entertaining, informing, and educating is historical novel. Goethe in Gaarder (2010: 23) stated that he who cannot draw on three thousand years is living from hand to mouth. So, history is not only past moments which pass away and just become the invaluable story; it is more as the life learning. By learning about history, we will also find a lot of factual useful knowledge about the growth of the society. This will encourage us to be better person in our social life. Even, we will get a lot of knowledge about how to manage social environment better.
Sophie’s World by Jostein Gaarder is one of the examples of this historical novel which presents many social aspects. But, it is exceptional because Jostein Gaarder presents the history of philosophy in Europe from the beginning until the recent in 20th century in one book and also fascinating because it uses mystery genre where the readers will be brought to discover philosophy with the different way. It is about Sophie Amundsen a fourteen years old girl who at first receives a letter consisted of philosophical questions from a mysterious philosopher. At the same day she also received a peculiar postcard from a father which addressed it for his daughter, Hilde Moller Knag but through her. Who are Hilde and her father is the big question here. The strange events that she experienced during her philosophical subject make us in suspense when reading this novel. Just like reading detective story actually. So there are two different sides in this novel, about Sophie’s life which is fully fiction and about history of philosophy in Europe which is fully reality.
As Hegel (Gaarder, 2010) said that history created because there are the differences in thinking of the society where that history takes place, means that it depends on the context. In the growth of time, society’s life in Europe automatically also grows. From thinking about the nature, human, and then society. From making own story about the gods such as Thor, Zeus, Apollo, and Athena, and their correlation with natural phenomenon and human disease, believing it as the mythology, then transforming to be more scientific in thinking. Afterward, their thought pattern developed more to think about how to create good constitutional kingdom or state to make more prosperous social life.
Mills in Haviland (1994) argued that we all live in a particular society and during a specific period of history. Thus, the features of that society and the character of that period of history naturally affect how each individual acts and reasons. In the relation with this historical novel, we can see that there are the significant changes related with the society of ancient Greece until modern society in 20th century where the philosophy was growing in Europe.
About this social change, accordingly Ogburn in Muin (2004: 86), social change includes the elements of culture either material or immaterial. By reading this novel, we will conceive that social changes occurred because of the differences growing in society which influence each other in the term of creating the better and truer life. As an example the advance in science of Roman in the Middle Ages as the result of social influence of Muslims scholars in Spain and Northern Italy. Social change is also caused by the social conflicts that arise in the society, where because of the complexity of human beings’ thought, appear the frictions among them. For instance the conflict between Roman and the Church authority before Renaissance where encouraged social change. These conditions also prove the theory of social change called Cyclical Theory by Oswald Spengler completed by Ronald Toynbee that social changes occur because of the progression and the deterioration of the civilization, and how the society responds the challenges in their social environment.
Social aspect itself is the important aspect that we should appreciate because in our lives, we cannot stand without maintaining relationship with the other. From the history such as the history of Europe in “Sophie’s World” we will learn many things about social aspect such as the way how to build a good condition in our social life and how to live in peace beside the other, even how to govern society with good governmental system. The plus value that we will get in this historical novel is also the beneficial information about social change in Europe. So, the social aspect in “Sophie’s World” will be the researcher’s focus in this research.

B.     Problem Statement
Based on the background above, the researcher formulates research questions as follow:
1.      1. What are the social aspects in Jostein Gaarder’s novel “Sophie’s
       World”?
2.       2. How are the social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to
       modern era in Jostein Gaarder’s novel “Sophie’s World”?

C.    Objective of the Research
            Objectives of the research based on the problem statements are as follow:
1.     1. To identify the social aspects in Jostein Gaarder’s novel “Sophie’s
       World”.
2.      2. To explain the social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to
       modern era in Jostein Gaarder’s novel “Sophie’s World”

D.    Significance of the Research
            The result of this research expectantly will give benefits to the readers especially to them who take an interest in literature. There are some specific significances of this research as follow:
1.       1. To give useful information about Jostein Gaarder’s novel
        “Sophie’s World” especially in its social side or social aspect.
2.       2. To present valuable knowledge about social changes in Europe
        from ancient Greek to modern era in twentieth century which exist
        in this Jostein Gaarder’s historical novel “Sophie’s World”
3.        3. To be the beneficial reference for the readers especially for the
        next researchers who also want to analyze social aspect or the same
        novel.

E.     Scope of the Research
            The scope of the research is limited to discuss about social aspects and social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era in Jostein Gaarder’s novel “Sophie’s World.

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